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Brief Definitive Report

Thymus-specific serine protease expression in stromal as well as hematopoietic cells in the thymus is needed for diversification of the endogenous repertoire of TCRs specific for a particular protein antigen.

Acute hantavirus infection in humans triggers a rapid expansion and long-term persistence of NK cells.


After retinal injury in mice, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages preserve retinal ganglion cells and promote retinal progenitor cell renewal.

Leptin regulates serotonin synthesis by brainstem neurons in adult mice; serotonin then acts on arcuate neurons to inhibit food intake via Creb.

Cyclophilin A promotes atherosclerosis in part by inducing reactive oxygen species and promoting endothelial cell apoptosis and macrophage recruitment into lesions.

Human B1 cells consist of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70 cells bearing a skewed B cell receptor repertoire, and are present in umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood.

Two-dimensional analysis reveals that peptide–MHC class II tetramers underestimate the frequency of cytokine-producing antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in polyclonal responses.

A TCR derived from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis engages the self-peptide myelin basic protein in the context of HLA-DQ1 in a very unusual way.

Local microbleeding induces the accumulation of Th17 cells and the development of IL-17– and IL-6–dependent arthritis in the absence of cognate antigen recognition by CD4+ T cells.

T cells lacking the IL-27 receptor generate less severe colitis in mice, and more readily up-regulate Foxp3 expression.

Microbiota drive tertiary lymphoid tissue formation in mice lacking the nuclear hormone receptor Rorγt, leading to intestinal inflammation and wasting disease.

Lymph node–resident dendritic cells sample antigen from follicular dendritic cells for presentation to CD8+ T cells.

By opposing IL-10–driven, MARCH1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of MHC class II, CD83 may boost the immunogenicity of dendritic cells.

In the lungs of mice infected with influenza, the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes is modulated by the type of target cell encountered.

Although scarce after annual influenza vaccination, B cells producing antibodies capable of neutralizing multiple influenza strains are abundant in humans infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza.

The Toxoplasma gondii granule protein GRA15 activates the NF-κB pathway.


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