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Rachel N. Cotton, Marcin Wegrecki, Tan-Yun Cheng, Yi-Ling Chen, Natacha Veerapen, Jérôme Le Nours, Dennis P. Orgill, Bohdan Pomahac, Simon G. Talbot, Richard Willis, John D. Altman, Annemieke de Jong, Ildiko Van Rhijn, Rachael A. Clark, Gurdyal S. Besra, Graham Ogg, Jamie Rossjohn, D. Branch Moody
CD1a is expressed on Langerhans cells, where it presents lipid antigens to activate T cells. However, skin cells also produce a natural lipid that binds CD1a and blocks T cell response as a mechanism to down-regulate autoreactivity.
Brief Definitive Report
Kaela Drzewiecki, Jungmin Choi, Joseph Brancale, Michael A. Leney-Greene, Sinan Sari, Buket Dalgiç, Aysel Ünlüsoy Aksu, Gülseren Evirgen Şahin, Ahmet Ozen, Safa Baris, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Dhanpat Jain, David Kleiner, Michael Schmalz, Kadakkal Radhakrishnan, Junhui Zhang, Kasper Hoebe, Helen C. Su, João P. Pereira, Michael J. Lenardo, Richard P. Lifton, Sílvia Vilarinho
Genomic analysis of families with unexplained portal hypertension reveals GIMAP5 as a critical regulator of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic vascular homeostasis. This study identifies a novel genetic cause of portal hypertension and provides new insight into its pathogenesis.
Brief Definitive Report
Katherine A. Black, Lijun Duan, Lungelo Mandyoli, Bruna P. Selbach, Weizhen Xu, Sabine Ehrt, James C. Sacchettini, Kyu Y. Rhee
Despite diversification into biochemically distinct enzyme families, rv0812 encodes a single active site that functions as an enzymatically bifunctional aminodeoxychorismate lyase (ADCL) and D–amino acid transaminase (DAAT) and may couple replication and division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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Carole Le Coz, David N. Nguyen et al.
PU.1 haploinsufficiency reduces the access of key transcription factors to open chromatin regions, undermines essential stage-specific transcriptional programs, and arrests human B cell development at the pro– to pre–B cell transition.
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Xiaoying Zhou, Wong Yu, Shu-Chen Lyu, Claudia Macaubas, Bryan Bunning, Ziyuan He, Elizabeth D. Mellins, Kari C. Nadeau
Peanut-specific CD4+ T cells drive the differentiation of CD209+ DCs, which then act reciprocally on the same CD4+ T cell population to increase Th2 cytokine expression in a positive feedback loop.
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Siyu Pei, Mingzhu Huang, Jia Huang, Xiaodong Zhu, Hui Wang, Simona Romano, Xiuyu Deng, Yan Wang, Yixiao Luo, Shumeng Hao, Jing Xu, Tao Yu, Qingchen Zhu, Jia Yuan, Kunwei Shen, Zhiqiang Liu, Guohong Hu, Chao Peng, Qingquan Luo, Zhenzhen Wen, Dongfang Dai, Yichuan Xiao
TGFβ is essential for the generation of anti-tumor Th9 cells, while it causes resistance against anti-tumor immunity. Pei et al. identify BFAR as an E3 ligase of TGFβR1, through which it coordinates TGFβ signaling to modulate Th9-mediated cancer immunotherapy.
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Katharina Hochheiser, Florian Wiede, Teagan Wagner, David Freestone, Matthias H. Enders, Moshe Olshansky, Brendan Russ, Simone Nüssing, Emma Bawden, Asolina Braun, Annabell Bachem, Elise Gressier, Robyn McConville, Simone L. Park, Claerwen M. Jones, Gayle M. Davey, David E. Gyorki, David Tscharke, Ian A. Parish, Stephen Turner, Marco J. Herold, Tony Tiganis, Sammy Bedoui, Thomas Gebhardt
Hochheiser et al. identify Ptpn2 and KLRG1 as new regulators of CD103+ CD8+ TRM cells in mouse skin. While KLRG1 inhibits TRM formation, genetic Ptpn2 deficiency increases the protective function of TRM cells in infection but aggravates TRM-dependent autoimmunity.

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Current Issue
Volume 218,
Issue 5,
May 3, 2021
Reviews & Opinions
Perspective
Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu, Petter Brodin, Aurélie Cobat, Catherine M. Biggs, Julie Toubiana, Carrie L. Lucas, Sarah E. Henrickson, Alexandre Belot, MIS-C@CHGE, Stuart G. Tangye, Joshua D. Milner, Michael Levin, Laurent Abel, Dusan Bogunovic, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Shen-Ying Zhang
SARS-CoV-2 is the trigger of MIS-C, which suggests that other viruses may trigger different forms of Kawasaki disease. The discovery of inborn errors of immunity underlying MIS-C would facilitate that of inborn errors of immunity to viruses underlying Kawasaki disease.
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Jacques Miller reflects on the identification of B cells and T cells.
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Küppers outlines our understanding of the generation and function of B cells.

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