People & Ideas
Dorothy Schafer investigates the role of microglia in neural circuit development and plasticity with a special focus on neurological disorders.
The nuclear envelope surrounds and protects the genome. Mannino and Lusk explore the unique set of quality control pathways that maintain its identity and function.
Jiang et al. uncover that ubiquitylated RAP80 and BRCC36 are substrates of deubiquitylation within the BRCA1-A complex. Deubiquitylation prevents auto-inhibition of the complex, allowing RAP80 to bind ubiquitin at DNA damage sites. Autologous deubiquitylation explains the matching ubiquitin-binding and hydrolysis activities within the BRCA1-A complex.
Kucharski et al. show that small changes to phosphorylation of Hec1 and partial phospho-occupancy are sufficient to support mitotic fidelity. They also show that Cdk1–Cyclin B1 localizes to improperly attached kinetochores during mitosis and directly participates in kinetochore–microtubule attachment error correction by phosphorylating Hec1.
Kinetochores are essential for accurately partitioning DNA during cell division. Little is known regarding kinetochores in Apicomplexa, a group that includes malaria parasites and Toxoplasma gondii. Here, Brusini et al. identify 13 previously unknown apicomplexan kinetochore proteins and potential therapeutic targets for selective inhibition.
Steinacker, Wong et al. show that centriole assembly in early fly embryos is not limited by a limiting pool of building blocks, but that phosphorylation of the centriole assembly protein Ana2/STIL by Cdk/Cyclins appears to slow centriole assembly toward the end of the S-phase.
Hannaford et al., identify that the interaction between Kinesin-1 and Pericentrin is essential for the direct transport of centrioles on the interphase microtubule network. This transport is important for the correct segregation of centrioles during asymmetric cell division.
We reveal that the lipid droplets can emerge from ER subdomains in contact with mitochondria. The lipid transfer proteins ORP5 and ORP8 localize at these sites where they regulate the recruitment of seipin and ensure proper LD biogenesis.
Renne et al. show that Seipin promotes the formation of lipid droplets containing either triacylglycerol or steryl esters. It is proposed that interactions between hydroxyl-residues within the Seipin complex and neutral lipid carboxyl esters provide a general mechanism for Seipin-mediated LD formation.
Simoes et al. demonstrate that the SLAYGLR/osteopontin motif induces the production of IFN-β in murine pDCs through α4-integrin receptor in the absence of Toll-like receptor activation. This axis not only enhances pDCs’ suppressive function against melanoma tumor growth, but also boosts pDC generation from bone marrow progenitors.
Droubi et al. identify a role for the inositol 5-phosphatase INPP5B in clustering and signaling of the B cell receptor. These effects are mediated by INPP5B-dependent hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to control cortical actin and B cell receptor dynamics.
DeepContact: High-throughput quantification of membrane contact sites based on electron microscopy imaging
Efficient and effective quantification protocol of membrane contact sites is an urgent demand in precise surveillance of various cellular processes. Liu et al. developed a deep learning–based high-throughput tool for profiling the contact with EM images.