ON THE COVER
Li et al. present the first crystal structures of invariant natural killer T cell receptors (TCRs) bound to microbial glycolipid–CD1d complexes. TCR binding induced conformational changes in the CD1d-bound microbial glycolipids such that they resembled the shape of CD1d-bound α-galactosylceramide. The Warhol-style image features a repeating sequence of these TCR-bound structures. Artwork by Joshua Graver (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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Brief Definitive Report
Tumors or embryonic stem cells bearing foreign mitochondrial DNA are rejected by the innate immune system via a mechanism that depends on MyD88.
Whole-exome sequencing-based discovery of STIM1 deficiency in a child with fatal classic Kaposi sarcoma
Whole-exome sequencing reveals a homozygous splice-site mutation in the gene encoding STIM1 in a child with classic Kaposi sarcoma.
The surface protein HvgA mediates group B streptococcus hypervirulence and meningeal tropism in neonates
Lethal meningitis triggered by the hypervirulent group B streptococcus clone ST-17 is mediated by a novel surface protein called HvgA.
A critical role for regulatory T cell–mediated control of inflammation in the absence of commensal microbiota
Removal of regulatory T cells precipitates tissue inflammation and a systemic autoimmune lympho- and myeloproliferative syndrome, even in germ-free mice.
Helminth secretions induce de novo T cell Foxp3 expression and regulatory function through the TGF-β pathway
The intestinal parasite H. polygyrus secretes a TGF-β–like molecule that induces regulatory T cells, thus suppressing anti-parasitic effector T cell responses by the host.
The interaction between Tim3 on Th1 cells and galectin-9 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis–infected macrophages restricts the bacterial growth by stimulating caspase-1–dependent IL-1β secretion.
Pathogenic virus-specific T cells cause disease during treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506: implications for transplantation
Pathogenic virus-specific T cells can inflict a cytokine storm and lethal disease even in immunosuppressive conditions.
Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and trafficking
Age-related defects in natural killer cell numbers and function underlie the decreased resistance to mousepox infection in aging mice.
The Vα14 invariant natural killer T cell TCR forces microbial glycolipids and CD1d into a conserved binding mode
The first crystal structures of iNKT cell TCRs bound to complexes of CD1d and microbe-derived glycolipids provide insight into the structural basis of iNKT cell microbial antigen recognition.
Mice lacking both PTEN and SHIP phosphatases develop spontaneous B cell lymphoma.
Filamin A regulates focal adhesion disassembly and suppresses breast cancer cell migration and invasion
The actin cross-linking protein filamin A reduces migration, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer cells.
HIF-1α regulates function and differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment
The hypoxic environment of tumors dictates the phenotype of local myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) via HIF-1a expression; hypoxia converts splenic MDSCs from specific into nonspecific suppressors.
Macrophage-dependent nitric oxide expression regulates tumor cell detachment and metastasis after IL-2/anti-CD40 immunotherapy
Immunotherapy with IL-2 and anti-CD40 induces the expression of NOS2 in tumor-associated macrophages, and its expression is required for the inhibition of tumor metastasis.
Bystander killing of cancer requires the cooperation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the effector phase
Killing of nonmalignant stroma requires cooperation between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the effector phase in the tumor microenvironment.
A novel subset of CD4+ TH2 memory/effector cells that produce inflammatory IL-17 cytokine and promote the exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma
Memory CD4+ T cells that produce both Th2 and Th17 cytokines are increased in the blood of patients with atopic asthma and in the lungs of asthmatic mice, where they contribute to inflammation.
STAT6-mediated displacement of polycomb by trithorax complex establishes long-term maintenance of GATA3 expression in T helper type 2 cells
Trithorax group complex is needed for initiation as well as maintenance of GATA3 gene expression in Th2 cells.
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for T cell activation and induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 drives T cell activation and disease in EAE in part by regulating the actin binding protein coronin 1a.
By inhibiting Nedd8, Tbata suppresses thymic epithelial cell proliferation and thymus size in mice.