Primary cilia function as critical signaling hubs whose absence leads to severe disorders collectively known as ciliopathies; our knowledge of ciliogenesis remains limited. We show that Smo induces ciliogenesis through two distinct yet essential noncanonical Hh pathways in several cell types, including neurons. Surprisingly, ligand activation of Smo induces autophagy via an LKB1-AMPK axis to remove the satellite pool of OFD1. This is required, but not sufficient, for ciliogenesis. Additionally, Smo activates the Gαi-LGN-NuMA-dynein axis, causing accumulation of a portion of OFD1 at centrioles in early ciliogenesis. Both pathways are critical for redistribution of BBS4 from satellites to centrioles, which is also mediated by OFD1 centriolar translocation. Notably, different Smo agonists, which activate Smo distinctly, activate one or the other of these pathways; only in combination they recapitulate the activity of Hh ligand. These studies provide new insight into physiological stimuli (Hh) that activate autophagy and promote ciliogenesis and introduce a novel role for the Gαi-LGN-NuMA-dynein complex in this process.

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