Diverse stresses, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), ionizing radiation, and chemotherapies, activate acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) and generate the second messenger ceramide at plasma membranes, triggering apoptosis in specific cells, such as hematopoietic cells and endothelium. Ceramide elevation drives local bilayer reorganization into ceramide-rich platforms, macrodomains (0.5–5-µm diameter) that transmit apoptotic signals. An unresolved issue is how ASMase residing within lysosomes is released extracellularly within seconds to hydrolyze sphingomyelin preferentially enriched in outer plasma membranes. Here we show that physical damage by ionizing radiation and ROS induces full-thickness membrane disruption that allows local calcium influx, membrane lysosome fusion, and ASMase release. Further, electron microscopy reveals that plasma membrane “nanopore-like” structures (∼100-nm diameter) form rapidly due to lipid peroxidation, allowing calcium entry to initiate lysosome fusion. We posit that the extent of upstream damage to mammalian plasma membranes, calibrated by severity of nanopore-mediated local calcium influx for lysosome fusion, represents a biophysical mechanism for cell death induction.
Fusion of lysosomes to plasma membrane initiates radiation-induced apoptosis
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Charles S. Ferranti, Jin Cheng, Chris Thompson, Jianjun Zhang, Jimmy A. Rotolo, Salma Buddaseth, Zvi Fuks, Richard N. Kolesnick; Fusion of lysosomes to plasma membrane initiates radiation-induced apoptosis. J Cell Biol 6 April 2020; 219 (4): e201903176. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201903176
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