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Brief Definitive Report

By engineering a mutant mouse strain that preserves the scaffolding function of NLRC4, Dixit et al. show cooperativity between it and another NOD family sensor, NLRP3.

Calabro et al. show that 33D1+ dendritic cells present in the bridging channel of the spleen are essential for alloantibody response to transfused red blood cells.

Lambrecht et al. show that the transcription factor Zeb2 regulates commitment toward both the pDC and cDC2 lineages by repressing Id2.

CD4+ and CD8+ recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) exhibit an anergic phenotype after encounter with self-antigen in the periphery. In the presence of inflammation, both CD4+ and CD8+ RTEs can be converted into competent diabetogenic effector cells.

Allday and collaborators demonstrate that the EBV transcription factor and oncoprotein EBNA3C directly induces the expression of AID and somatic mutations in B cells, providing a mechanism linking infection and lymphoma induction.


Work in a mouse model suggests that central inhibition of IL-1β/IL-1R1 signaling during the early acute phase of neuroinflammation may be an effective means for preventing loss of neurological function in multiple sclerosis.

In Special Collection: Immunological Memory

CD8+ T cells activated during viral infection migrate to infected skin in an antigen-independent manner. Local recognition of antigens drives the differentiation into Trm CD8+ T cells.

Unanue and colleagues show that activation of anti-insulin lymphocytes can occur at diverse anatomical sites in response to circulating insulin and may be driven by unconventional antigen presentation by germinal center B cells.

Moore et al. reports the first single-cell gene expression analysis in zebrafish blood to distinguish major blood lineages, identify new cell types, and delineate heterogeneity in T cell leukemia.

The ubiquitin E3 ligase March1 controls the turnover and surface levels of peptide–MHCII in GC B cells, contributing to optimal GC responses.

de Villartay et al. describe a patient with a DNA repair factor mutation that leads to an increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and, ultimately, to mild bone marrow failure and microcephaly.

Lear et al. report a novel molecular pathway in which Fibrosis Inducing E3 Ligase 1 (FIEL1) regulates TGFβ and fibrosis pathway through SUMO-E3 ligase PIAS4. They also develop a small molecule inhibitor toward FIEL1 that is highly effective in ameliorating fibrosis in mice.

Microglial activation is a hallmark of most neurodegenerative disorders, yet it is not clear if it plays beneficial or deleterious roles. Zhu et al. provide evidence for a general protective role of microglia in the pathogenesis of prion diseases.

Work in humans and mice highlights the role of tryptophan metabolism in the immunopathogenesis of typhoid fever, offering novel insight into clinical disease.

IFN-γ mediates hepatic T cell retention and the maintenance of systemic tolerance during hepatitis B virus persistence in the liver.

Gloury et al. reveal an essential role for the Id3–E-protein axis in the transcriptional regulation of humoral immunity.

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