On the cover
In a live starfish oocyte preparing to undergo the first meiotic division, chromosomes (cyan) are aligned on the spindle (green), which is anchored to the cell cortex (magenta). Borrego-Pinto et al. show that specific positioning of the meiotic spindle ensures that replicative mother centrioles are extruded into polar bodies, leaving a single non-replicative daughter centriole to prepare the egg for fertilization.Image © 2016 Borrego-Pinto et al.
See page 815.
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Stress granule condensation (SGC) of translationally arrested mRNAs requires G3BP, and G3BP-mediated SGC is inhibited by serine 149 phosphorylation, regulated by mutually exclusive binding of Caprin1 and USP10, and requires its RGG region for SGC and for interactions with 40S ribosomal subunits.
Centriole elimination is essential for sexual reproduction. Borrego-Pinto et al. show that in starfish oocytes elimination proceeds by extrusion of mother centrioles to polar bodies, whereas the single remaining daughter centriole is eliminated in the cytoplasm, preparing the egg for fertilization.
This study establishes merotelic kinetochores as a new experimental model for studying the mechanical response of the kinetochore. Laser microsurgery and live-cell imaging in yeast and mammalian cells show a conserved viscoelastic response of the kinetochore.
Zhao et al. show that MLL5 and PLK interact in the cytosol and propose a model wherein MLL5 maintains spindle bipolarity by preventing cytosolic PLK1 aggregation during mitosis.
Smoothened determines β-arrestin–mediated removal of the G protein–coupled receptor Gpr161 from the primary cilium
Pal et al. describe a two-step process determining removal of the cilia-localized GPCR, Gpr161, upon sonic hedgehog signaling. First, β-arrestins are recruited by the signaling-competent receptor in a smoothened-dependent manner. Second, clathrin-mediated endocytosis outside of the ciliary compartment coordinates removal.
Correction: A keratin scaffold regulates epidermal barrier formation, mitochondrial lipid composition, and activity
Correction: Degradation of HK2 by chaperone-mediated autophagy promotes metabolic catastrophe and cell death
To faithfully target the center of large eggs, microtubule asters translate their shape into directed motion through length-dependent microtubule forces mediated by dynein in the cytoplasm. Their speed is independent of aster shape but determined by their growth rate.
A vertebrate Ca2+/H+ exchanger (CAX), which is part of a widespread conserved family in animals, localizes to acidic organelles, tempers evoked Ca2+ signals, and regulates cell-matrix adhesion during neural crest cell migration.
In This Issue
The proteasome controls presynaptic differentiation through modulation of an on-site pool of polyubiquitinated conjugates
The intra-axonal events governing formation of presynaptic terminals are still poorly understood. Pinto et al. reveal a mechanism by which a localized decrease in proteasome degradation and resultant accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins at nascent sites signal assembly of presynaptic terminals.
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