Labeled nuclear proteins were microinjected into the cytoplasm of Tetrahymena thermophila. Macronuclear H1, calf thymus H1, and the SV40 large T antigen nuclear localization signal linked to BSA accumulated specifically in macronuclei, even if cells were in micronuclear S phase or were nonreplicating. The way in which histone H4 localized to either the macronucleus or the micronucleus suggested that it accumulates in whichever nucleus is replicating. The inability of the micronucleus to accumulate Tetrahymena H1 or heterologous nuclear proteins, even at a period in the cell cycle when it is accumulating H4, suggests that it has a specialized transport system. These studies demonstrate that although the mechanism for localizing proteins to nuclei is highly conserved among eukaryotes, it can differ between two porecontaining nuclei lying in the same cytoplasm.

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