Human autoimmune sera specific for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)/cyclin (auxiliary protein for DNA polymerase delta) demonstrated the presence of epitopes within the macro- and micronuclei of the hypotrichous ciliated protozoa Euplotes eurystomus. Tightly bound PCNA/cyclin was localized at the site of DNA synthesis in macronuclei, the rear zone of the replication band. Starvation or heat shock, conditions that reduce macronuclear replication, resulted in a decrease of PCNA/cyclin in replication bands. Micronuclei also exhibited PCNA/cyclin localization which persisted for a large proportion of the vegetative cell cycle and exhibited significant resistance to adverse culture conditions. Immunoprecipitation of 35S-labeled soluble Euplotes proteins with PCNA/cyclin autoimmune sera revealed a spectrum of low molecular mass proteins. PCNA/cyclin-like proteins have now been observed in the widely divergent species: human, rat, amphibian, yeast, and ciliated protozoa.

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