Isolated macronuclei from the hypotrichous ciliated protozoan Euplotes eurystomus incorporate biotinylated dUTP specifically into the replication band (RB) as detected with immunofluorescence, using rabbit anti-biotin antibodies followed by fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG. When gold-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG was used in a preembedded reaction, subsequent immunoelectron microscopic analysis demonstrated that the biotinylated nucleotide appeared more concentrated in the rear zone of the RB, with almost no labeling in the forward zone. It was possible to use the immunofluorescent assay to establish that incorporation of biotinylated dUTP is inhibited by simultaneous addition of N-ethyl maleimide or aphidicolin, and by omission of any one of the other unlabeled dNTPs. In addition, prolonged heat shock of the intact cells, before lysis and in vitro assay, yielded markedly reduced incorporation. Comparison with published data on the in vivo incorporation of [3H]thymidine into Euplotes eurystomus RBs indicates the fidelity of the in vitro reaction.