The efflux of Mg++ from squid axons subject to internal solute control by dialysis is a function of ionized [Mg], [Na], [ATP], and [Na]o. The efflux of Mg++ from an axon with physiological concentrations of ATP, Na, and Mg inside into seawater is of the order of 2-4 pmol/cm2s but this efflux is strongly inhibited by increases in [Na]i, by decreases in [ATP]i, or by decreases in [Na]o. The efflux of Mg++ is largely independent of [Mg]i when ATP is at physiological levels, but in the absence of ATP reaches half the value of Mg efflux in be presence of ATP when [Mg]i is about 4 mM and [Na] 40 mM. Half-maximum responses to ATP occur at about 350 micronM ATP into seawater with Na either present or absent. The Mg efflux mechanism has many similarities to the Ca efflux system in squid axons especially with respect to the effects of ATP, Nao, and Na on the flux. The concentrations of free Mg and Ca in axoplasm differ, however, by a factor of 10(5) while the observed fluxes differ by a factor of 10(2).
Ca efflux in dialyzed squid axons was measured with 45Ca as a function of internal ionized Ca in the range 0.005-10 muM. Internal Ca stores were depleted by treatment with CN and dialysis with media free of high energy compounds. The [Ca]iota was stabilized with millimolar concentrations of EDTA, EGTA, or DTPA. Nonspecific leak of chelated Ca was measured with [14C]-EDTA and found to be 0.02 pmol/cm2s/mM EDTA. Correction of the measured Ca efflux for this leak of chelated calcium was made when appropriate. Ca efflux was roughly linear with internal free Ca in the range 0.005-0.1 muM. Above 0.1 muM, efflux was less than proportional to concentration but did not saturate at the highest concentration studied. Ca efflux was reduced about 50% by replacement of external Na with Li at Caiota approximately 1 muM, but was insensitive to such replacement for Ca less than 0.1 muM. Ca efflux was insensitive to internal Mg in the range 0-4 mM, indicating that the Ca pump favors Ca over Mg by a factor of about 10(6). Ca efflux was reduced about 60% by increasing internal Na from 1 to 80 mM. This effect could represent weak interference of a Ca carrier by Na or a loss of driving force because of a reduction in ENa - Em occasioned by an increase in Naiota. A few measurements were made of Ca influx in intact and in dialyzed fibers. In both cases, Ca influx increased when external Na was replaced by Li.