Ca efflux in dialyzed squid axons was measured with 45Ca as a function of internal ionized Ca in the range 0.005-10 muM. Internal Ca stores were depleted by treatment with CN and dialysis with media free of high energy compounds. The [Ca]iota was stabilized with millimolar concentrations of EDTA, EGTA, or DTPA. Nonspecific leak of chelated Ca was measured with [14C]-EDTA and found to be 0.02 pmol/cm2s/mM EDTA. Correction of the measured Ca efflux for this leak of chelated calcium was made when appropriate. Ca efflux was roughly linear with internal free Ca in the range 0.005-0.1 muM. Above 0.1 muM, efflux was less than proportional to concentration but did not saturate at the highest concentration studied. Ca efflux was reduced about 50% by replacement of external Na with Li at Caiota approximately 1 muM, but was insensitive to such replacement for Ca less than 0.1 muM. Ca efflux was insensitive to internal Mg in the range 0-4 mM, indicating that the Ca pump favors Ca over Mg by a factor of about 10(6). Ca efflux was reduced about 60% by increasing internal Na from 1 to 80 mM. This effect could represent weak interference of a Ca carrier by Na or a loss of driving force because of a reduction in ENa - Em occasioned by an increase in Naiota. A few measurements were made of Ca influx in intact and in dialyzed fibers. In both cases, Ca influx increased when external Na was replaced by Li.

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