The effects which alterations in the concentrations of internal sodium and high energy phosphate compounds had on the sodium influx and efflux of internally dialyzed squid axons were examined. Nine naturally occurring high energy phosphate compounds were ineffective in supporting significant sodium extrusion. These compounds were: AcP, PEP, G-3-P, ADP, AMP, GTP, CTP, PA, and UTP.1 the compound d-ATP supported 25–50% of the normal sodium extrusion, while ATP supported 80–100%. The relation between internal ATP and sodium efflux was nonlinear, rising most steeply in the range 1 to 10 µM and more gradually in the range 10 to 10,000 µM. There was no evidence of saturation of efflux even at internal ATP concentrations of 10,000 µM. The relation between internal sodium and sodium efflux was linear in the range 2 to 240 mM. The presence of external strophanthidin (10 µM) changed the sodium efflux to about 8–12 pmoles/cm2 sec regardless of the initial level of efflux; this changed level was not altered by subsequent dialysis with large concentrations of ATP. Sodium influx was reduced about 50 % by removal of either ATP or Na and about 70 % by removing both ATP and Na from inside the axon.

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