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In this review paper, Rodero and Crow outline the current understanding of the type I interferonopathies.

Brief Definitive Report

Hong et al. show that IFNλ4 exhibits similar antiviral activity to IFNλ3. Humans deploy several mechanisms to limit expression of functional IFNλ4 through noncoding splice variants and nonfunctional protein isoforms.

Using Mafb-driven Cre, Murphy et al. establish a new tool to discriminate macrophages from other myeloid cells in vivo.

Suzuki et al. show that neural inputs to β2-adrenergic receptors expressed on lymphocytes generate the diurnal variation in the frequency of lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes, which is reflected in the magnitude of the adaptive immune response.

Moore and colleagues present new strains of optically clear immune-deficient zebrafish that allow for dynamic imaging of regeneration and tumor progression at single-cell resolution in live animals.

The histone deacetylase HDAC7 interacts with and represses myeloid and T cell genes in pro–B cells. HDAC7 deletion blocks early B cell development and results in severe lymphopenia.


Kigerl et al. show that spinal cord injury causes profound changes in gut microbiota and that these changes in gut ecology are associated with activation of GALT immune cells. They show that feeding mice probiotics after SCI confers neuroprotection and improves functional recovery.

Hartmann et al. show that, in narcolepsy, T cells exhibit a proinflammatory signature characterized by increased production of TNF, IL-2, and B cell–supporting cytokines.

Intracerebral inoculation of tau fibrils from AD brains results in the induction and propagation of tau inclusions in WT mice.

Disatnik et al. identify mitochondrial DNA levels, 8-OHdG, and inflammation factors as potential peripheral biomarkers to follow progression and treatment response of Huntington’s disease.

LUBAC components interact with the TLR3 signaling cascade at different levels, thereby tightly controlling TLR3-mediated innate immunity.

Akatsu and colleagues show that CD72 specifically recognizes Sm/RNP, a lupus-related self-antigen and an endogenous TLR7 ligand, and inhibits B cell responses to Sm/RNP. In mice, CD72 prevents production of anti-Sm/RNP antibodies crucial for lupus development.

Xu et al. show that the lupus-associated polymorphism FcγRIIB-T232 has structural changes of the TM domain that reduces lateral mobility and inhibitory functions.

Azad and collaborators propose that Senp1 drives excessive erythropoiesis in high-altitude Andean dwellers suffering from chronic mountain sickness.

In Special Collection: Immunological Memory

Nabekura and Lanier demonstrate that two distinct long-lived NK cell subsets with different functional properties differentiate during mouse model of cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. NK cells expressing the MCMV-specific Ly49H receptor differentiated into memory NK cells and Ly49H NK cells differentiated into cytokine-activated NK cells. Memory NK cells show enhanced effector function, whereas cytokine-activated NK cells persisted better in an MCMV-free environment.

The scramblase TMEM16F is indispensable for the formation of multivesicular bodies in late endosomes that facilitate TCR degradation and signal termination. Hyperactivation of TMEM16F-deficient T cells in chronic LCMV infection leads to severe T cell exhaustion and uncontrolled virus burden.

Saba and collaborators show that dendritic cells generate the thymic sphingosine-1-phosphate gradient and regulate T cell egress.

Cowley and Meierovics show that mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells promote the differentiation of monocytes into monocyte-derived dendritic cells during Francisella tularensis LVS pulmonary infection.

Ozga and colleagues use intravital two-photon microscopy and quantitative whole-organ imaging to reveal the dynamics of early affinity-driven CD8+ T cell activation.

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