An autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction was demonstrated between T and non-T lymphocytes. Sheep erythrocyte rosetting was used to separate human lymphocytes into T and non-T lymphoid preparations. Non-T lymphocytes stimulated the proliferation of autologous T lymphocytes. The cell in this preparation that was most stimulatory had the characteristics of a K lymphocyte. The allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction was also shown to reflect the proliferation of T lymphocytes stimulated by allogeneic non-T lymphocytes. Proliferation of T lymphocytes in the allogeneic mixed lymphocyte culture probably reflects a response to both foreign histocompatibility determinants and determinants present on non-T lymphocytes. It is suggested that the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to autologous non-T lymphocytes may be a step in the process by which T lymphocytes regulate immunity.

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