Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous population of lymphocytes that coordinate early immune responses and maintain tissue homeostasis. Type 1 innate immune responses are mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and group 1 ILCs (ILC1s). Despite their shared features, NK cells and ILC1s display profound differences among various tissue microenvironments. Here, we identify the inositol polyphosphatase INPP4B as a hallmark feature of tissue-resident ILC1s and intratumoral NK cells using an scRNA-seq atlas of tissue-associated and circulating NK/ILC1s. Conditional deletion of Inpp4b in ILC1s and NK cells reveals that it is necessary for the homeostasis of tissue-resident ILC1s but not circulating NK cells at steady-state. Inpp4b-deficient cells display increased rates of apoptosis and reduced activation of the prosurvival molecule AKT. Furthermore, expression of Inpp4b by NK/ILC1s is necessary for their presence in the intratumoral environment, and lack of Inpp4b impairs antitumor immunity. These findings highlight INPP4B as a novel regulator of tissue residency and antitumor function in ILC1s and NK cells.

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