Hypertrophy was produced in the anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle of 5-wk-old chickens by application of a load to the humerus. After 4 wk, hypertrophied ALD muscles were greater than 2.5 times heavier than contralateral control ALD muscles. Two isomyosins are distinguishable in normal ALD muscles by their different electrophoretic mobilities. It is shown here that the faster migrating SM-1 isomyosin decreases in abundance with age and that the application of an overload enhances both the rate and extent of this process. Monoclonal antibodies were selected by an immunotransfer technique that were specific for the heavy chains associated with either SM-1 or SM-2, or cross-reacted with both isoforms. The cellular distribution of the SM-1 and SM-2 isomyosins was analyzed by immunofluorescent technique using these antibodies. Anti-SM-1 and anti-SM-2 antibodies reacted with separate populations of cells, whereas the third antibody reacted with all myocytes in the normal ALD muscle. These data suggest that there is an exclusive cellular distribution of myosin heavy chains associated with SM-1 and SM-2 proteins. Immunofluorescent analysis of hypertrophied muscle showed the anti-SM-2-specific antibody reacting with all myocytes, whereas the anti-SM-1-specific antibody reacted with none. This is consistent with the elimination of the SM-1 isoform in hypertrophied muscles.
The localization of high-molecular-weight (80,000-200,000-daltons) proteins in the sarcomere of striated muscle has been studied by coordinated electron-microscopic and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoretic analysis of native myofilaments and extracted and digested myofibrils. Methods were developed for the isolation of thick and thin filaments and of uncontracted myofibrils which are devoid of endoproteases and membrane fragments. Treatment of crude myofibrils with 0.5% Triton X-100 results in the release of a 110,000-dalton component without affecting the myofibrillar structure. Extraction of uncontracted myofibrils with a relaxing solution of high ionic strength results in the complete disappearance of the A band and M line. In this extract, five other protein bands in addition to myosin are resolved on SDS gels: bands M 1 (190,000 daltons) and M 2 (170,000 daltons), which are suggested to be components of the M line; M 3 (150,000 daltons), a degradation product; and a doublet M 4, M 5 (140,000 daltons), thick-filament protein having the same mobility as C protein. Extraction of myofibrils with 0.15% deoxycholate, previously shown to remove Z-line density, releases a doublet Z 1, Z 2 (90,000 daltons) with the same mobility as alpha-actinin, as well as proteins of 60,000 daltons and less, and small amounts of M 1, M 2, M 4, and M 5; these proteins were not extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100. The C, M-line, and Z-line proteins and/or their binding to myofibrils are very sensitive to tryptic digestion, whereas the M 3 (150,000 daltons) component and an additional band at 110,000 daltons are products of proteolysis. Gentle treatment of myofibrils with an ATP relaxing solution results in the release of thick and thin myofilaments which can be pelleted by 100,000-g centrifugation. These myofilaments lack M-and Z-line structure when examined with the electron microscope, and their electrophoretograms are devoid of the M 1, M 2, Z 1, and Z 2 bands. The M 4, M 5 (C-protein doublet), and M 3 bands, however, remain associated with the filaments.