Zika virus (ZIKV), a recently emerged member of the flavivirus family, forms replication compartments at the ER during its lifecycle. The proteins that are responsible for the biogenesis of replication compartments are not well defined. Here, we show that Zika nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)–induced ER remodeling is essential for viral replication. NS1 expressed in the ER lumen induced ER perinuclear aggregation with an ultrastructure resembling that of the replication compartment. Data from model membrane system indicated that the membrane-binding and membrane-remodeling properties of NS1 depend on its hydrophobic insertion into the membrane. These findings demonstrate that NS1 plays a crucial role in flavivirus replication compartment formation by remodeling the ER structure.
Proinsulin is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in pancreatic β cells and transported to the Golgi apparatus for proper processing and secretion into plasma. Defects in insulin biogenesis may cause diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms for proinsulin transport are still not fully understood. We show that β cell–specific deletion of cTAGE5 , also known as Mea6 , leads to increased ER stress, reduced insulin biogenesis in the pancreas, and severe glucose intolerance in mice. We reveal that cTAGE5/MEA6 interacts with vesicle membrane soluble N -ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor Sec22b. Sec22b and its interaction with cTAGE5/MEA6 are essential for proinsulin processing. cTAGE5/MEA6 may coordinate with Sec22b to control the release of COPII vesicles from the ER, and thereby the ER-to-Golgi trafficking of proinsulin. Importantly, transgenic expression of human cTAGE5/MEA6 in β cells can rescue not only the defect in islet structure, but also dysfunctional insulin biogenesis and glucose intolerance on cTAGE5 / Mea6 conditional knockout background. Together our data provide more insight into the underlying mechanism of the proinsulin trafficking pathway.