The hormonal control of ciliogenesis and transformation of mucous cells was studied in the oviduct (magnum) of ovariectomized quails. Estradiol benzoate induces ciliogenesis with doses varying from 10 mug/day to 100 mug/day after 6 days of treatment. With 100 mug/day, differentiation of some mucous cells is also induced as well as the formation of transitory "mixed cells" which are in the process of ciliogenesis and contain mucous granules. Associated with progesterone (1 mg/day), estradiol benzoate (10 mug/day) induces the differentiation of mucous cells and ciliated cells. The luminal epithelium of quails injected with this mixture is similar to the luminal epithelium observed in the oviduct of laying quails. With the same dose of progesterone (1 mg/day) and 20 mug/day of estradiol benzoate for 6 days, ciliogenesis is completely inhibited. All epithelial cells are secretory cells. Transformation of 50% of the mucous cells into ciliated cells is obtained by following the previous estradiol-progesterone treatment with the injection of estradiol benzoate (20 mug/day) for 3 days. Divisions of mucous cells were also observed. It is also possible to induce ciliogenesis in some mucous cells by withdrawing both hormones for 3 days. In this case, no cell divisions were observed.