Optimal human granulocyte chemotaxis has been shown to require both calcium and magnesium. Exposure of granulocytes to three different chemotactic factors (C5a, kallikrein, and dialyzable transfer factor) yielded a rapid calcium release, depressed calcium uptake, and was associated with a shift of calcium out of the cytoplasm and into a granule fraction. Colchicine, sodium azide, and cytochalasin B, in concentrations that inhibited chemotaxis, also inhibited calcium release while low concentrations of cytochalasin B, which enhanced chemotaxis, also enhanced calcium release. Microtubule assembly was visualized both in cells suspended in C5a without a chemotactic gradient and in cells actively migrating through a Micropore filter. The data suggest microtubule assembly is regulated, at least, in part, by the level of cytoplasmic calcium. It is proposed that asymmetric assembly of microtubules may be instrumental in imparting the net vector of motion during chemotaxis.

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