Cytological changes occurring in young oocytes of the mouse, following whole-body x-irradiation, have been examined by light and electron microscopy. Two minutes after a dose of 200 r, a drop occurs in the number of mitochondria per oocyte. The normal number of mitochondria is restored in the next few minutes. Five to 6 hours after a dose of 7 r, and 30 to 45 minutes following a dose of 200 r, all the oocytes are markedly contracted. In the next 2 hours (at a dose of 7 r), some cells shrink further and become pycnotic, while others expand and show signs of karyolysis. Of the expanded cells, some (about 50 per cent of total young oocytes) become morphologically normal. In both pycnotic and karyolytic nuclei, the nucleolus was contracted but without loss of its fibrillar structure. The contracted nucleolus appeared similar to those seen in some nearly mature normal oocytes (these oocytes have a high natural death rate). No other cell type in the ovary was affected by doses of x-rays up to 200 r. Observations on the nucleus of the normal oocyte are included. In the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase the chromosomes were dispersed into bundles of 100 A microfibrils. The main component of the nucleolus was found to be tightly coiled fibrils of 60 to 100 A, which appear to have a close relationship with the microfibrils of the chromosomes.