Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) shows that fission yeast centromeres and telomeres make up specific spatial arrangements in the nucleus. Their positioning and clustering are cell cycle regulated. In G2, centromeres cluster adjacent to the spindle pole body (SPB), while in mitosis, their association with each other and with the SPB is disrupted. Similarly, telomeres cluster at the nuclear periphery in G2 and their associations are disrupted in mitosis. Mitotic centromeres interact with the spindle. They remain undivided until the spindle reaches a critical length, then separate and move towards the poles. This demonstrated, for the first time, that anaphase A occurs in fission yeast. The mode of anaphase A and B is similar to that of higher eukaryotes. In nda3 and cut7 mutants defective in tubulin of a kinesin-related motor, cells are blocked in early stages of mitosis due to the absence of the spindle, and centromeres dissociate but remain close to the SPB, whereas in a metaphase-arrested nuc2 mutant, they reside at the middle of the spindle. FISH is therefore a powerful tool for analyzing mitotic chromosome movement and disjunction using various mutants. Surprisingly, in top2 defective in DNA topoisomerase II, while most chromatid DNAs remain undivided, sister centromeres are separated. Significance of this finding is discussed. In contrast, most chromatid DNAs are separated but telomeric DNAs are not in cut1 mutant. In cut1, the dependence of SPB duplication on the completion of mitosis is abolished. In crm1 mutant cells defective in higher-order chromosome organization, the interphase arrangements of centromeres and telomeres are disrupted.
Cell cycle-dependent specific positioning and clustering of centromeres and telomeres in fission yeast.
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H Funabiki, I Hagan, S Uzawa, M Yanagida; Cell cycle-dependent specific positioning and clustering of centromeres and telomeres in fission yeast.. J Cell Biol 1 June 1993; 121 (5): 961–976. doi: https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.121.5.961
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