Using monoclonal antibody technology and affinity chromatography we have identified four distinct classes of cell surface receptors for native collagen on a cultured human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT-1080. Two classes of monoclonal antibodies prepared against HT-1080 cells inhibited adhesion to extracellular matrix components. Class I antibodies inhibited cell adhesion to collagen, fibronectin, and laminin. These antibodies immunoprecipitated two noncovalently linked proteins (subunits) with molecular masses of 147 and 125 kD, termed alpha and beta, respectively. Class II antibodies inhibited cell adhesion to native collagen only and not fibronectin or laminin. Class II antibodies immunoprecipitated a single cell surface protein containing two noncovalently linked subunits with molecular masses of 145 and 125 kD, termed alpha and beta, respectively. The two classes of antibodies did not cross-react with the same cell surface protein and recognized epitopes present on the alpha subunits. Pulse-chase labeling studies with [35S]methionine indicated that neither class I nor II antigen was a metabolic precursor of the other. Comparison of the alpha and beta subunits of the class I and II antigens by peptide mapping indicated that the beta subunits were identical while the alpha subunits were distinct. In affinity chromatography experiments HT-1080 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 or octylglucoside detergents and chromatographed on insoluble fibronectin or native type I or VI collagens. A single membrane protein with the biochemical characteristics of the class I antigen was isolated on fibronectin-Sepharose and could be immunoprecipitated with the class I monoclonal antibody. The class I antigen also specifically bound to type I and VI collagens, consistent with the observation that the class I antibodies inhibit cell adhesion to types VI and I collagen and fibronectin. The class II antigen, however, did not bind to collagen (or fibronectin) even though class II monoclonal antibodies completely inhibited adhesion of HT-1080 cells to types I and III-VI collagen. The class I beta and II beta subunits were structurally related to the beta subunit of the fibronectin receptor described by others. However, none of these receptors shared the same alpha subunits. Additional membrane glycoprotein(s) with molecular mass ranges of 80-90 and 35-45 kD, termed the class III and IV receptors, respectively, bound to types I and VI collagen but not to fibronectin. Monoclonal antibodies prepared against the class III receptor had no consistent effect on cell attachment or spreading, suggesting that it is not directly involved in adhesion to collagen-coated substrates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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