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The impact of fusion pores on synaptic release is difficult to discern. Through analysis of miniature excitatory synaptic currents, Jackson et al. revealed a correlation between amplitude and rise-time. Modeling indicated this correlation results from the interplay between vesicle size and fusion pore flux.

ON and OFF signals in the retina are processed via parallel pathways. Gangi et al. reveal that regulation of starburst amacrine cells, which are crucial for motion detection, is different between the ON and OFF pathways, despite their morphological mirror symmetry.

Animal cells regulate their volume by actively pumping sodium and potassium ions, preventing the osmotic influx of water from bursting the cell. We have extended the pump-leak equations that are used to characterize such systems to include impermeant extracellular molecules, cation–chloride co-transporters, and the energetics of ion transport.

Wojciechowlski et al. used voltage clamp fluorometry to probe the S4 helix movement in the voltage-sensing domain of the sea urchin HCN channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. They found that when labeled with either ALEXA-488 or MTS-TAMRA, each fluorophore reported different components of S4 movement.

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