Squid giant axons were internally dialyzed by a technique previously described. In an axon exposed to cyanide seawater for 1 hr and dialyzed with an ATP-free medium, the Na efflux had a mean value of 1.3 pmole/cm2sec when [Na]i was 88 mM, in quantitative agreement with flux ratio calculations for a purely passive Na movement. When ATP at a concentration of 5–10 mM was supplied to the axoplasm by dialysis, Na efflux rose almost 30-fold, while if phosphoarginine, 10 mM, was supplied instead of ATP, the Na efflux rose only about 15-fold. The substitution of Li for Na in the seawater outside did not affect the Na efflux from an axon supplied with ATP, while a change to K-free Na seawater reduced the Na efflux to about one-half. When special means were used to free an axon of virtually all ADP, the response of the Na efflux to dialysis with phosphoarginine (PA) at 10 mM was very small (an increment of ca. 3 pmole/cm2sec) and it can be concluded that more than 96% of the Na efflux from an axon is fueled by ATP rather than PA. Measurements of [ATP] in the fluid flowing out of the dialysis tube when the [ATP] supplied was 5 mM made it possible to have a continuous measurement of ATP consumption by the axon. This averaged 43 pmole/cm2sec. The ATP content of axons was also measured and averaged 4.4 mM. Estimates were made of the activities of the following enzymes in axoplasm: ATPase, adenylate kinase, and arginine phosphokinase. Values are scaled to 13°C.

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