Human dendritic cells (DC) can now be generated in vitro in large numbers by culturing CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors in presence of GM-CSF+TNF alpha for 12 d. The present study demonstrates that cord blood CD34+ HPC indeed differentiate along two independent DC pathways. At early time points (day 5-7) during the culture, two subsets of DC precursors identified by the exclusive expression of CD1a and CD14 emerge independently. Both precursor subsets mature at day 12-14 into DC with typical morphology and phenotype (CD80, CD83, CD86, CD58, high HLA class II). CD1a+ precursors give rise to cells characterized by the expression of Birbeck granules, the Lag antigen and E-cadherin, three markers specifically expressed on Langerhans cells in the epidermis. In contrast, the CD14+ progenitors mature into CD1a+ DC lacking Birbeck granules, E-cadherin, and Lag antigen but expressing CD2, CD9, CD68, and the coagulation factor XIIIa described in dermal dendritic cells. The two mature DC were equally potent in stimulating allogeneic CD45RA+ naive T cells. Interestingly, the CD14+ precursors, but not the CD1a+ precursors, represent bipotent cells that can be induced to differentiate, in response to M-CSF, into macrophage-like cells, lacking accessory function for T cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate that different pathways of DC development exist: the Langerhans cells and the CD14(+)-derived DC related to dermal DC or circulating blood DC. The physiological relevance of these two pathways of DC development is discussed with regard to their potential in vivo counterparts.
Fresh leukemic cells from patients with adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and some ATL-derived T cell lines show adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) mainly through E-selectin, but a proportion of this binding remains unaffected by the addition of combinations of antibodies against known adhesion molecules. By immunizing mice with one of such cell lines, we established monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), termed 131 and 315, that recognize a single cell surface antigen (Ag) and inhibit the remaining pathway of the adhesion. These mAbs did not react with normal resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or most of the cell lines tested except for two other human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cell lines. After stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), PBMC expressed Ag 131/315 transiently, indicating that these mAbs define a T cell activation Ag. Western blotting and immunoprecipitation revealed that Ag 131/315 has an apparent molecular mass of 50 kD. Expression cloning was done by transient expression in COS-7 cells and immunological selection to isolate a cDNA clone encoding Ag 131/315. Sequence analysis of the cDNA indicated that it is identical to human OX40, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor family. We then found that gp34, the ligand of OX40, was expressed on HUVECs and other types of vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, it was shown that the adhesion of CD4+ cells of PHA-stimulated PBMC to unstimulated HUVECs was considerably inhibited by either 131 or 315. Finally, OX40 transfectants of Kit 225, a human interleukin 2-dependent T cell line, were bound specifically to gp34 transfectants of MMCE, a mouse epithelial cell line, and this binding was blocked by either 315 or 5A8, an anti-gp34 mAb. These results indicate that the OX40/gp34 system directly mediates adhesion of activated T cells or OX40+-transformed T cells to vascular endothelial cells.