The constitutive culture supernatant (SN) of the macrophage tumor line P388D1 (P388 SN) and the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced culture supernatant of the T cell hybridoma FS6-14.13 (FS6 Con A SN) were shown to contain nonspecific factors capable of inducing increased Ia expression by normal resting B cells in a dose-dependent manner. In six consecutive experiments the relative increase in Ia expression induced by P388 SN was 4.9 +/- 0.9, with FS6 Con A SN 10.7 +/- 1.5, and with a combination of both preparations 13.0 +/- 1.7. This increase in Ia expression was observed to occur in virtually all the B cells, reaching maximum levels within 24 h of culture. The interleukin-induced increase in B cell Ia expression occurred in the absence of ancillary signals provided by ligand-receptor Ig cross-linking and despite the fact that virtually all the control B cells, cultured in the absence of factors, remained in G0. These results suggest that functional receptors for at least some interleukins are expressed on normal resting B cells and their effects can be manifest in the absence of additional activating signals. The increased Ia expression induced by the nonspecific factor preparations was shown to be correlated with enhanced antigen-presenting capacity by the B cells to T cell hybridomas. The nature of the interleukins responsible for these effects remains to be definitively determined, however, the activity of FS6 Con A SN was shown to correlate with B cell growth factor activity and increased B cell Ia expression was not observed using interleukin 2 (IL-2) or interferon-gamma, prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
We have demonstrated the ability of a series of murine T cell hybridomas to deliver an antigen-specific, B cell I-region-restricted helper signal in the generation of specific PFC responses to protein-bound haptens. With some hybridomas the elicitation of optimal PFC responses required the addition of nonspecific factors provided by culture supernatants of concanavalin A-stimulated (Con A SN) spleen cells. Using hapten-primed B cells depleted of both T cells and macrophages (Mphi) we have now demonstrated a requirement for three nonspecific factor preparations to substitute for spleen Con A SN in the elicitation of optimal PFC responses. The first preparation was the interleukin 1 containing culture supernatant of the Mphi tumor cell line P388D1, the second the interleukin 2 (IL-2) and B cell growth factor containing Con A SN of the T cell hybridoma FS6-14.13, and the third, the gamma interferon containing Con A SN of the T cell hybridoma FS7-20.6.18. The P388D1 and FS6-14.13 factor preparations were most effective when added at the initiation of culture, while the FS7-20.6.18 factor preparation was most effective when added at 24 h of culture. The activity of FS6-14.13 Con A SN was depleted by incubation with the IL-2-dependent T cell line HT-2. The activity of FS7-20.6.18 Con A SN was abrogated by incubation at pH 2. The results suggest that the generation of PFC responses to protein-bound haptens require at least three nonspecific factors in addition to an antigen/Ia specific helper signal.
We have examined the carrier-specific helper activity of a number of antigen-specific, I region-restricted T cell hybridomas prepared in our laboratory. The hybridomas were assayed for helper activity in the presence or absence of exogenously added nonspecific factors found in the concanavalin A-activated supernatants of normal mouse spleen cells. Of six hybridomas tested, all six could stimulate the IgM anti-hapten response of hapten-primed B cells in the presence of the appropriate hapten-carrier conjugates. At low or moderate carrier doses, the response was dependent upon hapten-carrier linkage and the ability of the hybridoma cells to interact with carrier in association with H-2 products of the responding B cells themselves. Plaque-forming cell responses stimulated by some of the hybridomas were absolutely dependent upon the addition of nonspecific factors, suggesting that anti hapten-protein responses require both an antigen specific I region restricted signal from the T cell hybridomas and nonspecific helper factors, made either by the T cell hybridomas or added exogenously. Under two sets of circumstances, B cells were stimulated in the absence of a simultaneous signal delivered through their immunoglobulin receptor. This occurred either when hapten-primed B cells were stimulated with an ovalbumin/I-Ak-specific hybridoma in the presence of very high concentrations of ovalbumin, or when H-2b B cells were incubated with a hybridoma specific for I-Ab alone. This was interpreted to mean that B cells can be stimulated by reaction of T cells with surface I molecules.