The rate of compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney after unilateral nephrectomy has been studied in adult rats fed diets containing various concentrations of protein.

A curve of enlargement on "standard" food (18 per cent casein) shows a rapid initial increase with subsequent slower rise to the 120th day. There is no significant difference between the value at 120 days (44 per cent) and that at 150 days (48 per cent).

A similar series with diets containing increasing concentrations of protein but with a constant time interval (21 days) after nephrectomy shows an increase in the degree of enlargement directly proportional to the protein content of the food. The values vary from 24 per cent with the 18 per cent casein ration to 77 per cent with the 90 per cent casein diet.

A third series shows the enlargement on "high protein" food (85 per cent casein). The values vary from 49 per cent at 3 days to 121 per cent at 150 days. There is no significant difference between the value at 120 days (123 per cent) and that at 150 days (121 per cent).

Determinations of total solids on the experimental kidneys show that the recorded enlargement involves mainly an actual tissue increase.

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