IL-3 and granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are two cytokines released by activated T lymphocytes that stimulate the growth and differentiation of various hematopoietic cell lines, among which are macrophages. It has been shown that TNF/cachectin, another cytokine that is released mostly by activated macrophages, plays a central role in experimental cerebral malaria (CM), an acute and lethal neurological syndrome induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice. Since CM requires functional CD4+ T lymphocytes to occur, we explored, by injecting rabbit antibodies to murine rIL-3 and/or GM-CSF, whether these cytokines are intermediates in the marked TNF release leading to CM. Treatment of infected mice with each antibody separately had no protective effect. In contrast, when both anti-rGM-CSF and anti-rIL-3 antibodies were injected together; (a) the occurrence of neurological syndrome was prevented in 90% of the cases; (b) the rise in serum TNF was prevented; and (c) macrophage accumulation in the spleen was significantly reduced. Murine CM appears to involve a cytokine cascade in which IL-3 and GM-CSF lead to the accumulation of TNF-releasing macrophages in vivo.

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