Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) in spleens and lymph nodes of allografted rats was determined by release of 51Cr from labeled target cells incubated with aggressor lymphoid cells. CMC was first detected in grafted adult rats on day 5, peaked on days 7 and 8, and declined rapidly to background levels by days 9 to 11. In allografted neonates and in cyclophosphamide-treated or neonatally thymectomized adults CMC was a fraction of that observed in normal adult rats. Enhancing antibodies deferred in vivo peak activity of CMC in allografted neonates for 3–4 days, and blocked in vitro the action of aggressor lymphocytes by binding to target cells. Enhancing antibodies had no effect on the cytotoxicity of aggressor cells, but horse antibodies to rat thoracic duct cells inhibited in vitro CMC of aggressor cells.

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