The nature of the antigens stimulating xenogeneic lymphocytes was studied using "primed LD typing". Human lymphocytes were sensitized in vitro against mouse spleen cells and restimulated with spleen cells of mouse strains sharing non-H-2 antigens or various regions of H-2 with the initial stimulating strain. The largest thymidine uptake was caused by restimulation with cells from the specific primary stimulator or an H-2-identical strain. Species-specific antigens or strain-specific antigens carried in the C57BL/10 background account for less than 15% of the total stimulation; a non-H-2 antigen associated with the Mlsalpha genotype caused moderate restimulation, amounting to 25% of the average H-2 response. Within H-2, the strongest restimulation was caused by antigens controlled by the I-A subregion; the K and D regions caused moderate, the I-C and S regions very weak, and the I-B subregion no restimulation. Thus, the genetic control of antigens stimulating xenogeneic and allogeneic MLC responses requires T cells and adherent cells, but in the human-mouse MLC, both cell types must come from the human responder; the majority of the proliferating cells are T cells. It is suggested that allograft and xenograft reactions are fundamentally identical processes, and that the relative vigor of alloaggression may be explained by secondary potentiating mechanisms depending on species-specific interactions between aggressor and target cells.

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