F1 hybrid mice are capable of rejecting inbred parental strain bone marrow grafts after a single lethal exposure to X-rays. The incompatibility is genetically controlled by the Hybrid-histocompatibility-1 (Hh-1) locus in or near the D end of the Histocompatibility-2 (H-2) region. The onset of parental graft rejection begins 9–12 hr after transplantation and is completed by 24 hr. Maturation of hybrid resistance does not occur until the 22nd day of life. In adults, the resistance to parental marrow grafts can be temporarily abrogated or weakened by administration of cyclophosphamide or dead cultures of Corynebacterium parvum, acute supralethal exposures to radiation, or by split-dose irradiation with 6–37-day intervals.
Parental marrow grafts elicit a transplantation reaction in irradiated F1 mice which is indistinguishable from that elicited in irradiated allogeneic (H-2-incompatible) hosts. Because of this immunogenetic similarity, the following question is raised: are the same or different alloantigens responsible for rejection of parental and allogeneic marrow grafts? In the first case, Hh-1 alleles would be recessive determinants of tissue-specific transplantation antigens, whereas in the second case they would be the determinants of parental- and tissue-specific antigens subject to genetic suppression in Hh-1 heterozygotes. Although the available evidence is not conclusive in excluding one of the two possibilities, it favors the concept that allograft reactivity to hemopoietic cells is elicited by recessive tissue-specific antigens.