Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) infection, a prominent cause of childhood hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), frequently manifests with the intriguing phenomenon of onychomadesis, characterized by nail shedding. However, the underlying mechanism is elusive. Here, we found that CV-A10 infection in mice could suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling by restraining LDL receptor–related protein 6 (LRP6) phosphorylation and β-catenin accumulation and lead to onychomadesis. Mechanistically, CV-A10 mimics Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) to interact with Kringle-containing transmembrane protein 1 (KRM1), the CV-A10 cellular receptor. We further found that Wnt agonist (GSK3β inhibitor) CHIR99021 can restore nail stem cell differentiation and protect against nail shedding. These findings provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of CV-A10 and related viruses in onychomadesis and guide prognosis assessment and clinical treatment of the disease.

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