The role of IL-17 in cancer remains controversial. Emerging evidence suggests that during early oncogenesis IL-17 supports tumor growth, whereas in established tumors IL-17 production by γδ and Th17 cells potentiates antitumor immunity. Consequently, γδ and Th17 cells are attractive targets for immunotherapy in the IL-17 immune axis. To optimize IL-17–based immunotherapy, a deeper understanding of the cytokines dictating IL-17 production and the polarity of γδ and Th17 cells is critical. Here, we delve into the dichotomous roles of IL-17 in cancer and provide insight into the tumor microenvironment conducive for successful IL-17–based γδ and Th17 cell immunotherapy.

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