The COOH terminus of decay accelerating factor (DAF) contains a signal that directs attachment of a glycophospholipid (GPI) membrane anchor. To define this signal we deleted portions of the DAF COOH terminus and expressed the mutant cDNAs it CV1 origin-deficient SV-40 cells. Our results show that the COOH-terminal hydrophobic domain (17 residues) is absolutely required for GPI anchor attachment. However, when fused to the COOH terminus of a secreted protein this hydrophobic domain is insufficient to direct attachment of a GPI anchor. Additional specific information located within the adjacent 20 residues appears to be necessary. We speculate that by analogy with signal sequences for membrane translocation, GPI anchor attachment requires both a COOH-terminal hydrophobic domain (the GPI signal) as well as a suitable cleavage/attachment site located NH2 terminal to the signal.
The phycobilisomes of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6701, grown in white light, contain C-phycoerythrin, C-phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin in a molar ration of approximately 2:2:1, and in addition, polypeptides of 99, 46, 33.5, 31.5, 30.5, and 27 x 10(3) Daltons, as well as a trace of a approximately 9 x 10(3)-dalton component. Two nitrosoguanidine-induced mutants of this organism produce aberrant phycobilisomes. Crude cell extracts of these mutants, 6701-NTG25 and NTG31, contain phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, and allophycocyanin in a molar ration of 1:5:1:1 and 0.55:0.3:1.0, respectively. The phycobilisomes from both mutants lack the 33.5 x 10(3)-dalton polypeptide. Wile-type phycobilisomes consist of a core composed of an equilateral array of three cylindrical elements surrounded by six rods in a fanlike arrangement. The rods are made up of stacked disks, 11 nm in diameter and 6 nm thick. In phycobilisomes of mutant 6701-NTG25, numerous particles with fewer than six rods are seen. Mutant 6701-NTG31 produces incomplete structures that extend from triangular core particles, through cores with one or two attached rods, to cores with as many as five rods. The structure of the core appears unaltered throughout. The amount of phycocyanin (relative to allophycocyanin) appears to determine the number of rods per core. A common assembly form seen in 6701-NTG31 is the core with two rods attached at opposite sides. From observations of this form, it is concluded that the core elements are cylindrical, with a height of 14 nm and a diameter of 11 nm. No consistently recognizable structural details are evident within the core elements.
Homozygous brachymorphic (bm/bm) mice are characterized by disproportionately short stature. Newborn bm/bm epiphyseal cartilages are shorter than normal although the cells in the different zones of growth are relatively well organized. The extracellular matrix reacts poorly with stains specific for sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The ultrastructural appearance of the cartilage matrix indicates normal collagen fibrils; however, proteoglycan aggregate granules are smaller than normal and are present in reduced numbers, particularly in the columnar and hypertrophic zones of the growth plate. In addition, a prominent network of fine filaments, which are extractable in 4 M guanidine hydrochloride, are present in the bm/bm cartilage matrix. These findings suggest that a defect affecting the proteoglycan component of cartilage occurs in bm/bm mice.