Lysosomal degradation of ubiquitinated β 2 -adrenergic receptors (β 2 ARs) serves as a major mechanism of long-term desensitization in response to prolonged agonist stimulation. Surprisingly, the βAR antagonist carvedilol also induced ubiquitination and lysosomal trafficking of both endogenously expressed β 2 ARs in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and overexpressed Flag-β 2 ARs in HEK-293 cells. Carvedilol prevented β 2 AR recycling, blocked recruitment of Nedd4 E3 ligase, and promoted the dissociation of the deubiquitinases USP20 and USP33. Using proteomics approaches (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry), we identified that the E3 ligase MARCH2 interacted with carvedilol-bound β 2 AR. The association of MARCH2 with internalized β 2 ARs was stabilized by carvedilol and did not involve β-arrestin. Small interfering RNA–mediated down-regulation of MARCH2 ablated carvedilol-induced ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation of endogenous β 2 ARs in VSMCs. These findings strongly suggest that specific ligands recruit distinct E3 ligase machineries to activated cell surface receptors and direct their intracellular itinerary. In response to β blocker therapy with carvedilol, MARCH2 E3 ligase activity regulates cell surface β 2 AR expression and, consequently, its signaling.
Directed cell migration requires the orientation of the Golgi and centrosome toward the leading edge. We show that stimulation of interphase cells with the mitogens epidermal growth factor or lysophosphatidic acid activates the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), which phosphorylates the Golgi structural protein GRASP65 at serine 277. Expression of a GRASP65 Ser277 to alanine mutant or a GRASP65 1–201 truncation mutant, neither of which can be phosphorylated by ERK, prevents Golgi orientation to the leading edge in a wound assay. We show that phosphorylation of GRASP65 with recombinant ERK leads to the loss of GRASP65 oligomerization and causes Golgi cisternal unstacking. Furthermore, preventing Golgi polarization by expressing mutated GRASP65 inhibits centrosome orientation, which is rescued upon disassembly of the Golgi structure by brefeldin A. We conclude that Golgi remodeling, mediated by phosphorylation of GRASP65 by ERK, is critical for the establishment of cell polarity in migrating cells.
Myt1 was originally identified as an inhibitory kinase for Cdc2 (Cdk1), the master engine of mitosis, and has been thought to function, together with Wee1, as a negative regulator of mitotic entry. In this study, we report an unexpected finding that Myt1 is essential for Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assembly during telophase in mammalian cells. Our analyses reveal that both cyclin B1 and cyclin B2 serve as targets of Myt1 for proper Golgi and ER assembly to occur. Thus, our results show that Myt1-mediated suppression of Cdc2 activity is not indispensable for the regulation of a broad range of mitotic events but is specifically required for the control of intracellular membrane dynamics during mitosis.