The mammalian Golgi ribbon disassembles during mitosis and reforms in both daughter cells after division. Mitotic Golgi membranes concentrate around the spindle poles, suggesting that the spindle may control Golgi partitioning. To test this, cells were induced to divide asymmetrically with the entire spindle segregated into only one daughter cell. A ribbon reforms in the nucleated karyoplasts, whereas the Golgi stacks in the cytoplasts are scattered. However, the scattered Golgi stacks are polarized and transport cargo. Microinjection of Golgi extract together with tubulin or incorporation of spindle materials rescues Golgi ribbon formation. Therefore, the factors required for postmitotic Golgi ribbon assembly are transferred by the spindle, but the constituents of functional stacks are partitioned independently, suggesting that Golgi inheritance is regulated by two distinct mechanisms.
Directed cell migration requires the orientation of the Golgi and centrosome toward the leading edge. We show that stimulation of interphase cells with the mitogens epidermal growth factor or lysophosphatidic acid activates the extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), which phosphorylates the Golgi structural protein GRASP65 at serine 277. Expression of a GRASP65 Ser277 to alanine mutant or a GRASP65 1–201 truncation mutant, neither of which can be phosphorylated by ERK, prevents Golgi orientation to the leading edge in a wound assay. We show that phosphorylation of GRASP65 with recombinant ERK leads to the loss of GRASP65 oligomerization and causes Golgi cisternal unstacking. Furthermore, preventing Golgi polarization by expressing mutated GRASP65 inhibits centrosome orientation, which is rescued upon disassembly of the Golgi structure by brefeldin A. We conclude that Golgi remodeling, mediated by phosphorylation of GRASP65 by ERK, is critical for the establishment of cell polarity in migrating cells.