We have found that chicken reticulocytes respond to elevated temperatures by the induction of only one heat shock protein, HSP70, whereas lymphocytes induce the synthesis of all four heat shock proteins (89,000 mol wt, HSP89; 70,000 mol wt, HSP70; 23,000 mol wt, HSP23; and 22,000 mol wt, HSP22). The synthesis of HSP70 in lymphocytes was rapidly induced by small increases in temperature (2 degrees-3 degrees C) and blocked by preincubation with actinomycin D. Proteins normally translated at control temperatures in reticulocytes or lymphocytes were not efficiently translated after incubation at elevated temperatures. The preferential translation of mRNAs that encode the heat shock proteins paralleled a block in the translation of other cellular proteins. This effect was most prominently observed in reticulocytes where heat shock almost completely repressed alpha- and beta-globin synthesis. HSP70 is one of the major nonglobin proteins in chicken reticulocytes, present in the non-heat-shocked cell at approximately 3 X 10(6) molecules per cell. We compared HSP70 from normal and heat-shocked reticulocytes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease and found no detectable differences to suggest that the P70 in the normal cell is different from the heat shock-induced protein, HSP70. P70 separated by isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis into two major protein spots, an acidic P70A (apparent pl = 5.95) and a basic P70B (apparent pl = 6.2). We observed a tissue-specific expression of P70A and P70B in lymphocytes and reticulocytes. In lymphocytes, P70A is the major 70,000-mol-wt protein synthesized at normal temperatures whereas only P70B is synthesized at normal temperatures in reticulocytes. Following incubation at elevated temperatures, the synthesis of both HSP70A and HSP70B was rapidly induced in lymphocytes, but synthesis of only HSP70B was induced in reticulocytes.

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