Three mouse monoclonal antibodies, Act I, Act II, and Act IV, against actin from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, have been made and characterized. All three antibodies are IgG1 and share the following properties: They form stable complexes with monomeric Dictyostelium actin, which prevents polymerization of the actin into filaments. On addition to preformed actin filaments, they cause a reduction in filament size and in the viscosity of the actin solution. They cross-react strongly with actins from the lower eucaryotes Physarum and Acanthamoeba, but not with alpha-actins from rabbit and human muscle or beta- and gamma-actins from human erythrocytes and a human B lymphoid cell line. Act II and Act IV recognize a similar antigenic determinant that is topographically distinct from that identified by Act I. In protein immunoblotting, only Act I bound strongly to Dictyostelium actin. Analysis of actin fragments with this technique showed that amino acids 13 to about 50 are required for Act I binding to actin. A comparison of the amino acid sequences of actins from lower eucaryotes and higher vertebrates implicates threonine 41 as a critical residue in the Act I antigenic site. The properties of Act II and Act IV suggest that they recognize antigenic sites involving the NH2-terminal six residues.

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