Ameloblasts from different regions of upper incisors of rats were examined with the electron microscope. During matrix formation, the cells resemble secretory cells. They are extremely long, tightly packed, and show considerable polarity. Nuclei are at the basal end of the cell. Mitochondria are proximal and the Golgi apparatus distal to the nucleus. Ergastoplasm is found in all levels but mainly in the distal end. A terminal bar apparatus separates the distal end of the cell from Tomes's process. Next to this is soft enamel. The next incisal region is a transitional zone in which the ameloblasts separate easily from the enamel. Endoplasmic reticulum is dilated and very obviously in communication with the perinuclear space. Mitochondria are present not only proximal, but also distal, to the nucleus. The next incisal zone consists of cells related to the maturation of enamel. They no longer resemble secretory cells, but now have more characteristics of transporting cells. Processes from the distal end of the cell are present with mitochondria closely applied to the base of the processes. A considerable amount of intercellular space exists with microvilli projecting into the space. Iron granules appear in these cells, and the ergastoplasmic cisternae are dilated. In the incisal end of this zone, the iron granules form aggregates. The iron finally leaves the cells to enter the enamel. Free RNP particles and fibrils become more evident after the iron leaves the cells. In the most incisal region, the ameloblasts are further reduced in height. Distal processes are no longer present and fibrils are more conspicuous.

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