The structure of the nucleated erythrocyte of frog and chicken has been investigated by electron microscopy and correlated with the distribution of haemoglobin and DNA-containing material determined by haem absorption and Feulgen staining in the light microscope. The nuclei of both species are found to contain haemoglobin which is continuous with the haemoglobin in the cytoplasm through holes or pores in the nuclear envelope. In addition the nucleus of the frog erythrocyte sometimes contains a single invagination which is lined by the nuclear envelope. The structure of the nuclear envelope and the pores and the organisation of the nucleus are similar to those already described for other somatic cells. Erythrocytes differ from the cells previously studied in that a continuity, via the nuclear pores, of chemical substance in the interior of the nucleus and in the cytoplasm can be directly demonstrated. This is due to the fact that the cytoplasm of erythrocytes is simple, consisting predominantly of haemoglobin, and that haemoglobin is easily recognised by its specific absorption. The static pictures obtained by electron microscopy have been supplemented by observations in phase-contrast of the changes in refraction of the cell contents due to the diffusion of the haemoglobin from the nucleus into the cytoplasm during haemolysis.

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