The flagellar frequency and waveform of Euglena were analyzed under full illumination (420-700 nm) and in a restricted wavelength band (530-700 nm) when the cells were in a medium containing Mg2+ or had been microinjected with Mg2+, Mn2+, or Ca2+ in solution. Magnesium abolished the change in flagellar frequency and the reversal in waveform that cells exhibit when illuminated by a 530-700 nm wavelength band. Under this restricted illumination, Ca2+ caused an increase in flagellar waveform reversal and a decrease in beating frequency. The flagellar motility of cells impaled on a microelectrode was examined in cells illuminated with various wavelengths.