We purified actin antibodies by affinity chromatography from the serum of rabbits immunized with glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken gizzard actin filaments and used this anti-actin to localize actin in myofibrils and fixed cultured cells at each stage of the cell cycle. By double immunodiffusion the anti-actin reacted with both smooth and skeletal muscle actin. Several blocking and absorption experiments demonstrated that the antibodies also bound specifically to actin in nonmuscle cells. The same structures stained using either the direct or the indirect fluorescent antibody technique; and, while the indirect method was more sensitive, the direct method was superior because there was no detectable nonspecific staining. As expected, anti-actin stained the I-band of myofibrils. It also stained stress fibers and membrane ruffles in HeLa cells. Some PtK-2 cells have straight stress fibers which stained with anti-actin, but in confluent cultures all PtK-2 cells have, instead, sinuous phase-dense fibers which stained with antibody. At prophase the whole cytoplasm stained uniformly with anti-actin. During metaphase and anaphase, anti-actin staining was concentrated diffusely in the mitotic spindle. In contrast, fluorescent heavy meromyosin stained discrete fine spindle fibers in these fixed cells. During cytokinesis, anti-actin stained the whole cytoplasm uniformly and was not concentrated in the cleavage furrow.

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