RMI 14, 514 ([5-tetradecycloxy]-2-furancarboxylic acid) represents a new class of hypolipidemic agents which cause unusual ultrastructural changes in liver of male rats and in selected peroxisomal enzymes in liver and kidney of both sexes. Among the principal ultrastructural changes in peroxisomes of male rat liver were (a) cavitation and compartmentalization of the matrix, often giving the appearance of a peroxisome-within-a-peroxisome, and (b) narrow, dense extensions of canaliculi or cisterns from the periphery of the peroxisome, forming partial circlets or surrounding irregular areas of cytoplasm. The unusual enzyme responses were (a) elevation of catalase activity in liver and kidney in female rats, (b) increased activity of three hydrogen peroxide-producing oxidases (urate oxidase, L-alpha-hydroxy acid oxidase, and D-amino acid oxidase) in the liver of both sexes, and (c) elevation of activity of the last two oxidases in male kidney. The peculiar ultrastructural changes in liver peroxisomes combined with the responses of selected peroxisomal enzymes represent unusual modulations or adaptations of these organelles to a hypolipidemic agent, the effects of which have not been reported extensively.

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