The synthesis and behavior of Amoeba proteus nuclear envelope (NE) phospholipids were studied. Most NE phospholipid synthesis occurs during G2 and little during mitosis or S. (A. proteus has no G1 phase). Autoradiographic observations after implantation of [3-H] choline nuclei into unlabeled cells reveal little turnover of NE phospholipid during interphase but during mitosis all the label is dispersed through the cytoplasm. Beginning at telophase all the label is dispersed through the cytoplasm. Beginning at telophase all the NE phospholipid label returns to the daughter NEs. This observation, along with the finding that no NE phospholipid synthesis occurs during mitosis or S, indicates that no de novo NE phospholipid production is required for newly forming NEs. Similarlyemetine, at concentrations that inhibit 97 percent of protein synthesis, does not prevent the post mitotic formation of NEs, suggesting that previously manufactured proteins are used in making new NEs. If a nucleus containing labeled NE phospholipids is transplanted into an unlabeled nucleate cell and the cell is allowed to grow and divide, the resultant four nuclei are equally labeled. This finding supports, but does not prove (see next paragraph), the conclusion that there probably is no continuity of the A. proteus NE during mitosis. When a phospholipid-labeled nucleus is implanted into a cell in mitosis, the grafted nucleus is not induced to enter mitosis. There is, however, a marked increase in the turnover of that nucleus's NE phospholipids with no apparent breakdown of the NE; this indicated that the mitotic cytoplasm possesses a factor that stimulates NE phospholipid exchange with the cytoplasm. That enhanced turnover is not accompanied by visible structural alteration makes less certain the earlier conclusion that no NE continuity exists during mitosis. Perhaps the most important finding in this study is that there are present, at restricted times in the cell cycle, factors capable of inducing accelerated exchange of structural components without microscopically detectable disruptions of structure.

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