Mitochondria from the muscle of the parasitic nematode Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum function anaerobically in electron transport-associated phosphorylations under physiological conditions. These helminth organelles have been fractionated into inner and outer membrane, matrix, and intermembrane space fractions. The distributions of enzyme systems were determined and compared with corresponding distributions reported in mammalian mitochondria. Succinate and pyruvate dehydrogenases as well as NADH oxidase, Mg++-dependent ATPase, adenylate kinase, citrate synthase, and cytochrome c reductases were determined to be distributed as in mammalian mitochondria. In contrast with the mammalian systems, fumarase and NAD-linked "malic" enzyme were isolated primarily from the intermembrane space fraction of the worm mitochondria. These enzymes are required for the anaerobic energy-generating system in Ascaris and would be expected to give rise to NADH in the intermembrane space. The need for and possible mechanism of a proton translocation system to obtain energy generation is suggested.

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