After the addition of insulin to monolayers of chick fibroblasts previously incubated in serum-free medium, the rates of protein and RNA synthesis increase continuously during the first 8–10 h. Little stimulation of DNA synthesis or mitosis results with the addition of insulin alone in contrast to the addition of fresh serum which stimulates both markedly. The stimulation in RNA synthesis does not result from expansion of the nucleotide pool but is correlated with increases in RNA polymerase activity. All major classes of RNA are stimulated; processing of preribosomal RNA to 28S and 18S and the association of this mature RNA with ribosomes appear to occur normally. The kinetics of stimulation of 5S RNA differ from those of the synthesis of 4S and of ribosomal RNA. Insulin and serum appear to affect the synthesis or stability of certain transcripts differentially.

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