The effect of α-amanitin on nucleoside labeling of RNA in nucleoli, chromosomes, nuclear sap, and cytoplasm from Chironomus tentans salivary gland cells was investigated by radioautography and gel electrophoresis. Preribosomal RNA formation and processing in the nucleolus was not measurably influenced by the drug, and both 28 S and 18 S ribosomal RNA were transferred to the cytoplasm. In the chromosomes the heterogeneous RNA labeling was completely inhibited for the large size range (above 45–50 S) and partially for the low range. The labeling of 4–5 S chromosomal RNA was only moderately reduced. Most of the chromosomes showed radioautographically a disappearance of the normal band pattern, but some retained a pattern of weakly labeled bands. The electrophoretic results for the nuclear sap paralleled those for the chromosomes. The effect of α-amanitin on RNA labeling in these cells is similar but not identical to that of the substituted benzimidazole 5,6-dichloro-1(ß-D-ribofuranosyl) benzimidazole (DRB).

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