The results of these studies demonstrate that carbon dioxide is required for the growth and maintenance of strains of fibroblasts derived from human tissues, strains FS4-705 and U12-705, from mouse tissue, strain L-705, and from rabbit tissues, strains RM3-56, RS1-56, and RT-56 in a chemically defined medium containing phosphite buffer in place of bicarbonate and supplemented with dialyzed serum and dialyzed embryo extract. Under these conditions, the cells fail to proliferate at a significant rate and begin to degenerate within 5 to 10 days when the flasks are not stoppered. Sufficient carbon dioxide is produced by the cells to promote growth as indicated by the fact that maximal proliferation is obtained in the same phosphite media when stoppered flasks are employed. With the exception of RS1-56, all the remaining strains tested can be propagated serially in open flasks containing phosphite medium prepared with whole serum and embryo extract. The rate of growth under these conditions, however, is only one-half to one-third that obtained in stoppered flasks containing phosphite medium or the conventional bicarbonate medium.

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